**Fact File about the Invention of the Calculator:** Invention: Calculator *** Date of Invention: 1642 *** Name of Inventor: Blaise Pascal *** Lifespan of Inventor: 1623 - 1662 *** Nationality of Inventor: French *** Historical Period: Renaissance (1350 to 1700) *** Category: Science and Technology *** Country of Origin: France *** Facts about the Inventor, Blaise Pascal, and the invention of the Calculator ***
**Fact 1: Who invented the Calculator?** The mechanical Calculator was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642 during the Renaissance era of inventions (1350 to 1700).
**Fact 2: Who invented the Calculator?** Prior to the invention of the
Calculator in 1642, significant other inventions were made to make this
development possible including the invention of the ancient abacus, the
manually-operated calculating device called Napier's bones, the slide rule and
the "calculating clock".
**Fact 3: Who invented the Calculator?** The ancient Mesopotamians invented
the Abacus c.2700 - 2300 BC as a fast counting system
using addition and subtraction to keep track of the numbers and counts of grain, cattle
and sheep.
**Fact 4: Who invented the Calculator?** Knowledge of the abacus reached
other ancient civilizations and the Chinese developed the 'Suan Pan' abacus not
only for addition and subtraction purposes but also for multiplication and
division calculations.
**Fact 5: Who invented the Calculator?** In 1614 the Scottish born
Renaissance scholar and mathematician John Napier (1550 - 1617) invented a
manually operated calculating device referred to as "Napier's bones". Napier’s
‘bones’ or ‘rods’ consisted of 9 different 'bones' or rods with numbers on for
multiplication purposes. John Napier also invented logarithmic scales.
**Fact 6: Who invented the Calculator?** In 1618 Edmund Gunter (1581-1626)
developed a mechanical device called 'Gunter's rule' for multiplication and
division purposes using dividers, which was the forerunner of the slide rule
that was invented by William Oughtred (1574 -1660) in 1622.
**Fact 7: Who invented the Calculator?** Willhelm Schickard (1592 -1635)
invented a calculating machine, called by his contemporaries the 'Speeding
Clock' or 'Calculating Clock', the first mechanical calculator that used gears
for the addition, subtraction and multiplication of six-digit numbers.
**Fact 8: Who invented the Calculator?** Pascal's Calculator, known as the
arithmetic machine and later as the Pascaline was invented by Blaise Pascal in
1642 when he was 19 years old.
**Fact 9: Who invented the Calculator?** The inventor of the mechanical Calculator, Blaise Pascal, was born on 19 June 1623 in Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne, France and died on 19 August 1662.
**Fact 10: Who invented the Calculator?** The early years of Blaise Pascal were spent in Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne, France where he was raised by his family. Blaise Pascal was
provided with an excellent home education by his father, Etienne Pascal, was
presiding judge of the tax court at Clermont-Ferrand.
**Fact 11: Who invented the Calculator?** in 1642 when Blaise Pascal was just
19 years old he invented the mechanical Calculator to help reduce his father's
workload of tax computations.
**Fact 12: Who invented the Calculator?** The Pascaline machine was received
to great acclaim by the scientists and mathematicians of the era. Pascal’s
contemporaries later claimed it was the first digital calculator because it
operated by counting integers.
**Fact 13: Who invented the Calculator?** The Pascaline calculator could add,
subtract, multiply, and divide and was housed in a compact brass box that
measured 13 inches by 4ins by 2 ins (350mm by 125 mm by 75mm). The Pascaline had
metal wheel dials that were turned to the appropriate numbers using a stylus.
The answers appeared in boxes in the top of the calculator.
**Fact 14: Who invented the Calculator?** The Pascaline was the first
commercially produced calculator and it came in both decimal and non-decimal
varieties. Blaise Pascal sold twenty of his machines but ceased production in
1654 because they were not cost effective to produce.
**Fact 15: Who invented the Calculator?** Other calculating machines were
developed but none became commercially viable until Charles Xavier Thomas
de Colmar (1785 - 1870) developed his simplified 'arithmometer'. The 'arithmometer'
was invented in 1820 and manufactured from 1851 to 1915. It could perform long
multiplications and divisions and was reliable enough to be used daily in an
office environment.
**Fact 16: Who invented the Calculator?** Frank S. Baldwin (1838-1925) of St.
Louis, Missouri, invented a pinwheel calculator in the United States of America
in 1872. His calculating machines were based on “pin wheel” or “variable cog”
mechanisms. Frank S. Baldwin also designed a simple adding device, another
Arithmometer in 1874 (US patent number 153522).
**Fact 17: Who invented the Calculator?** In 1884 American inventor
Dorr E. Felt (1862-1930) invented the Comptometer, the first successful
key-driven adding and calculating machine and the Comptograph, the first
printing adding machine.
**Fact 18: Who invented the Calculator?** In 1891 William Seward Burroughs
invented a nine-digit adding device with a printing mechanism, designed to
record only the final result of calculation and the large scale production of
his machines began. In 1906 William Seward Burroughs claimed that he had sold
40,000 of its machines that year and that 90% of all adding machines were sold
by Burroughs.
**Fact 19: Who invented the Calculator?** Up to the 1960's calculators were
complicated motor-assisted mechanical adding machines with no other electronic
parts. In 1963 the Bell Punch Co., Uxbridge, England invented the world's first
electronic desktop calculators that used cold-cathode vacuum tubes and numerical
display tubes.
**Fact 20: Who invented the Calculator?** In 1962 the Philips company
produced their prototypes of electronic calculators and in 1964 the Sony
Corporation introduced the world's first all-transistorized (no vacuum tube)
desk-top electronic calculators.
**Fact 21: Who invented the Calculator?** The electronic calculators began to
replace the electro-mechanical machines and in 1965 Texas Instruments took a
massive step forward by producing a prototype of the "Cal-Tech" hand-held
calculator.
The invention of the electronic
hand-held Calculator was made
in 1967 by the American inventor
Jack S. Kilby and by the 1970's the
first battery-operated "hand-held" calculators were sold.
**Fact 22: Who invented the Calculator?** The sales of the new "hand-held"
calculators soared and as initial prices decreased they became popular with both
students and office workers alike.
**Fact 23: Who invented the Calculator?** The First calculator to use a
microprocessor, the Intel 4004, was developed in 1972 and in the same year
Hewlet-Packard introduced the scientific pocket calculator.
**Fact 24: Who invented the Calculator?** In 1976 Calculators with Liquid
crystal displays (LCD) were introduced and the first calculators equipped with
solar cells, used to charge the internal batteries, were also developed.
**Fact 25: Who invented the Calculator?** In 1980 Sharp's development of the
hand-held calculator led to the first hand-held computer with a QWERTY keypad.
**Fact 26: Who invented the Calculator?**
Personal computers began to be pioneered in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve
Wozniak who jointly founded the
Apple corporation and revolutionized the world of
Computing. Personal computers now come with a calculator utility program that
emulates the appearance and functions of a calculator. |