Fact File about the Invention of the Wrench: Invention: Wrench *** Date of Invention: 1922 *** Name of Inventor: Jack Johnson *** Lifespan of Inventor: 1878 - 1946 *** Nationality of Inventor: African American *** Historical Period: Second US Industrial Revolution *** Country of Origin: America *** Facts about the Inventor, Jack Johnson, and the invention of the Wrench ***
Fact 1: Who invented the Wrench? Contrary to popular belief the American inventor Solymon Merrick is often mistakenly credited with the invention of the wrench. However, Jack Johnson was the first to patent the wrench on April 18, 1922 (U.S. patent number 1,413,121) whereas Solymon Merrick patented his version of the monkey wrench much later on May 7,1842.
Fact 2: Who invented the Wrench? The Wrench was invented by Jack Johnson in 1922 during the Second US Industrial Revolution era of inventions and was a significant addition to advancements made in the area of mechanical engineering.
Fact 3: Who invented the Wrench? The inventor of the Wrench, Jack Johnson, was born on March 31, 1878 in Galveston, Texas and died on June 10, 1946.
Fact 4: Who invented the Wrench? The early years of John Arthur Johnson were spent in Galveston, Texas where he was raised by his family. Jack Johnson came from a poor family and received a limited education.
Fact 6: Who invented the Wrench? The first jobs of Jack Johnson centered around the busy Port of Galveston docks, piers, wharves and warehouses where he worked loading boats with bales of cotton. At this time Galveston was the world's leading port for cotton exports. He hated the work and found work exercising horses at the race track and became apprenticed to a carriage painter called Walter Lewis.
Fact 6: Who invented the Wrench? Walter Lewis took a keen interest in boxing and passed his passion for the sport on to Jack Johnson. Jack began watch sparring matches and his interest in the sport of boxing continued to grow. Inevitably, Jack Johnson became a prize fighter and then heavyweight boxer.
Fact 7: Who invented the Wrench? Jack Johnson had an imposing stature standing 6′ 1″ and weighing 192 lbs which would earn him the nickname of the "Galveston Giant". Jack Johnson made his debut as a professional boxer on November 1, 1898, in Galveston which he won with a knock-out blow.
Fact 8: Who invented the Wrench? Jack Johnson made his debut as a professional boxer on November 1, 1898, in Galveston. Just five years later, on February 3, 1903, he beat Denver Ed Martin on points in a 20-round match and won the title of World Colored Heavyweight Champion.
Fact 9: Who invented the Wrench? In 1910 the former undefeated heavyweight champion white American James J. Jeffries (1875 - 1953) came out of retirement to challenge Jack Johnson. The contest was billed as the "Fight of the Century" and James J. Jeffries was given the title of the "Great White Hope". The boxing match was fuelled by racial tension. The "Fight of the Century" took place on July 4, 1910. The contest resulted in a win for Jack Johnson when Jeffries' corner "threw in the towel.
Fact 10: Who invented the Wrench? Jack Johnson earned a massive amount of money, equivalent to nearly 2 million dollars at today's rate. Jack Johnson had beaten a white man a black man was the undisputed champion of the world.
Fact 11: Who invented the Wrench? Jack Johnson's victory in the "Fight of the Century" triggered race riots across the United States.
Fact 12: Who invented the Wrench? Jack Johnson had become a wealthy celebrity. He was disliked by many whites and his flashy lifestyle and highly public personal life enraged many as he ignored the social “rules” of the day and openly dated white women. He married three times and all of his wives were white. He married his first wife, Etta Terry Duryea, in January 1911 but suffering depression, she committed suicide in September 1912. He shocked many by almost immediately started dating another white girl called Lucille Cameron.
Fact 13: Who invented the Wrench? The situation came to a head in 1912 when he was arrested for violation of the Mann Act. This Law, passed in 1910, made it a crime to transport women across state lines "for the purpose of prostitution or debauchery, or for any other immoral purpose".
Fact 14: Who invented the Wrench? Jack Johnson was charged with taking his white girlfriend, Lucille Cameron, across state lines for "immoral purposes". He was convicted of the crime by Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis and sentenced to Federal prison for one year. But before he could be imprisoned, he skipped bails and with Lucille Cameron fled to Europe. They married on December 4, 1912.
Fact 15: Who invented the Wrench? The couple eventually returned to the United States on 20 July 1920 and Jack Johnson was sent to Leavenworth Federal Prison in Kansas. It was here that he invented the wrench.
Fact 16: Who invented the Wrench? Whilst serving time in prison he realized the need for a tool that would help him loosen or tighten nuts and bolts. The type of tool he needed did not exist so he made his own wrench, improving all existing designs of such tools.
Fact 17: Who invented the Wrench? He designed the Wrench with a powerful gripping action and the ability to be quickly disassembled for replacement or repair.
Fact 18: Who invented the Wrench? Whilst still in prison he patented his invention of the Wrench. The patent was applied for on March 23, 1921.
Fact 19: Who invented the Wrench? Jack Johnson was released from Leavenworth Federal Prison on 9 July 1921.
Fact 20: Who invented the Wrench? Jack Johnson was granted his patent for the wrench on April 18, 1922 (U.S. patent #1,413,121).
Fact 21: Who invented the Wrench? Jack Johnson died in a car crash on June 10, 1946 at Franklinton, North Carolina (aged 68). He is remembered as the first black undisputed champion of the world following his victory in the "Fight of the Century" and his defeat of James J. Jeffries, the "Great White Hope". Few people are aware of his other claim to fame as the inventor of the wrench.
Fact File: Country of Origin: America *** Name of Inventor: Jack Johnson *** Nationality of Inventor: African American *** Date of Invention: 1922 *** Invention: Wrench *** Lifespan of Inventor: 1878 - 1946 *** The Inventor and Invention of the Wrench ***